Sweden has a total population of The highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Southern "Sverige tranade fasta situationer pa stangd traning" is predominantly agriculturalwhile the north is heavily forested.
Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in general very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers. Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracywith a monarch as head of statelike its neighbour Norway.
The capital city is Stockholmwhich is also the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary statecurrently divided into 21 counties and municipalities.
Sverige tranade fasta situationer pa stangd traning independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population,   the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture, finances and languages.
When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and eventually the Swedish Empire was formed. This became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was inwhen Norway was militarily forced into personal union.
Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold Waralbeit Sweden has since openly moved towards cooperation with NATO.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens. It has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks Sverige tranade fasta situationer pa stangd traning in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of lifehealth, educationprotection of civil libertieseconomic competitiveness, equalityprosperity and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. The etymology of Swedesand thus Swedenis generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own",  referring to one's own Germanic tribe.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes Suiones as a powerful tribe distinguished not merely for their arms and men, but for their powerful fleets with ships that had a prow at each end longships.
Which kings kuningaz ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC. As for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts, mainly of male names, Sverige tranade fasta situationer pa stangd traning that the people of south Scandinavia spoke Proto-Norse at the time, a language ancestral to Swedish and other North Germanic languages.
In the 6th century Jordanes names two tribes living in Scandzaboth of which are now considered to be synonymous with the Swedes: Jordanes describes the Suetidi and Dani as being of the same stock and the tallest of people. He later mentions Sverige tranade fasta situationer pa stangd traning Scandinavian tribes as being of a same stature. The Icelandic historian Snorri Sturluson also wrote that the Swedish king Adils Eadgils had the finest horses of his day. The Swedish Viking Age lasted roughly from the 8th century to the 11th century.
Their routes passed through the Dnieper south to Constantinopleon which they carried out numerous raids. The Byzantine Emperor Theophilos noticed their great skills in war, and invited them to serve as his personal bodyguard, known as the Varangian Guard. The Arab traveller Ibn Fadlan described these Vikings as follows:. I have seen the Rus as they came on their merchant journeys and encamped by the Itil. I have never seen more perfect physical specimens, tall as date palms, blond and ruddy; they wear neither tunics nor caftans, but the men wear a garment which covers one side of the body and leaves a hand free.
Each man has an axe, a sword, and a knife, and keeps each by him at all times. The swords are broad and grooved, of Frankish sort. The actions of these Swedish Vikings are commemorated on many runestones in Sweden, such as the Greece runestones and the Varangian runestones. There was also considerable participation in expeditions westwards, which are commemorated on stones such as the England runestones. The last major Swedish Viking expedition appears to have been the ill-fated expedition of Ingvar the Far-Travelled to Serklandthe region south-east of the Caspian Sea.
Its members are commemorated on the Ingvar runestonesnone of which mentions any survivor. What happened to the crew is unknown, but it is believed that they died of sickness.
Sweden and Gothia were two separate nations long before that and since antiquity. It is not known how long they existed: The island of Gotland was disputed by other than Swedes, at this time Danish, Sverige tranade fasta situationer pa stangd traning, and Gotland-domestic.
The south-west parts of the Scandinavian peninsula consisted of three Danish provinces ScaniaBlekinge and Halland. But there were Swedish settlements along the southern coastline of Norrland. During the early stages of the Scandinavian Viking Age, Ystad in the Danish province Scania and Paviken on Gotland were flourishing centres of trade, but they were not parts of the early Swedish Kingdom. Remains of what is believed to have been a large market dating from to AD have been found in Ystad.
Between andtrade brought an abundance of silver to Gotland, and according to some scholars, the Gotlanders of this era hoarded more silver than the rest of the population of Scandinavia combined.
St Ansgar is usually credited with introducing Christianity inbut the new religion did not begin to fully replace paganism until the 12th century. During the 11th century, Christianity became the prevalent religion, and from Sweden is counted as a Christian nation. The period between and was characterised by internal power struggles and competition among the Nordic kingdoms.
In the years — according to the legend of Eric IX and the Eric Chronicles Swedish kings made a firstsecond and third crusade to pagan Finland against FinnsTavastians and Karelians and started conflicts with the Rus' who no longer had any "Sverige tranade fasta situationer pa stangd traning" with Sweden.
Except for the provinces of Scania, Blekinge and Halland in the south-west of the Scandinavian peninsula, which were parts of the Kingdom of Denmark during this time, feudalism never developed in Sweden as it did in the rest of Europe.
Slavery also Sverige tranade fasta situationer pa stangd traning thralldom was not common in Sweden,  and what slavery there was tended to be driven out of existence thanks to the spread of Christianity as well as to the difficulty to obtain slaves from the lands east of the Baltic Sea, and by the development of cities before the 16th century.
Former slaves tended to be absorbed into the peasantry, and some became labourers in the towns. Still, Sweden remained a poor and economically backward country in which barter was the primary means of exchange. For instance, the farmers of the province of Dalsland would transport their butter to the mining districts of Sweden and exchange it there for iron, which they would then take to the coast and trade for fish, which they consumed, while the iron would be shipped abroad.
In the middle of the 14th century, Sweden was struck by the Black Death. The population at same territory did not reach the numbers of the year again until the beginning of the 19th century. One third of the population died in the triennium of — During this period, the Swedish cities began to acquire greater rights and were strongly influenced by German merchants of the Hanseatic Leagueactive especially at Visby.
However, Margaret's successors, whose rule was also centred in Denmark, were unable to control the Swedish nobility. Many times the Swedish crown was inherited by children kings over the course of the kingdom's existence; consequently real power was held for long periods by regents notably those of the Sture family chosen by the Swedish parliament. King Christian II of Denmarkwho asserted his claim to Sweden by force of arms, ordered a massacre of Swedish nobles in Stockholm in This came to be known as the " Stockholm blood bath " and stirred the Swedish nobility to new resistance and, on 6 June now Sweden's national holiday inthey made Gustav Vasa their king.
Shortly afterwards the new king rejected Catholicism and led Sweden into the Protestant Reformation. The League sought civil and commercial privileges from the princes and royalty of the countries and cities along the coasts of the Baltic Sea. Having their own navy, the Hansa were able to sweep the Baltic Sea free of pirates. They sought agreement to be free of all customs and taxes.
The main exports from Sweden were iron and copper. However, the Swedes began to resent the monopoly trading position of the Hansa mostly consisting of German citizensand to resent the income they felt they lost to the Hansa. Consequently, when Gustav Vasa or Gustav I broke the monopoly power of the Hanseatic League he was regarded as a hero by the Swedish people. The foundations laid by Gustav would take time to develop. Furthermore, when Sweden did develop, freed itself from the Hanseatic League, and entered its golden era, the fact that the peasantry had traditionally been free meant that more of the economic benefits flowed back to them rather than going to a feudal landowning class.
During the 17th century Sweden emerged as a European great power. Before the emergence of the Swedish Empire, Sweden was a poor and scarcely populated country on the fringe of European civilisation, with no significant power or reputation.
Sweden rose to prominence on a continental scale during the tenure of king Gustavus Adolphusseizing territories from Russia and Poland—Lithuania in multiple conflicts, including the Thirty Years' War.
These German provinces excluded themselves from Swedish power one by one, leaving Sweden with only a few northern German territories: Swedish PomeraniaBremen-Verden and Wismar. In the middle of the 17th century Sweden was the third-largest country in Europe by land area, only surpassed by Russia and Spain.
Sweden reached its largest territorial extent under the rule of Charles X after the treaty of Sverige tranade fasta situationer pa stangd traning in The Swedes conducted a series of invasions into the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, known as the Deluge. After more than half a century of almost constant warfare, the Swedish economy had deteriorated. It became the lifetime task of Charles' son, Charles XIto rebuild the economy and refit the army.
His legacy to his son, the coming ruler of Sweden, Charles XIIwas one of the finest arsenals in the world, a large standing army and a great fleet.
Sweden's largest threat at this time, Russia, had a larger army but was far behind in both equipment and training. After the Battle of Narva inone of the first battles of the Great Northern Warthe Russian army was so severely devastated that Sweden had an open chance to invade Russia.
This gave Russia time to rebuild and modernise its army. After the success of invading Poland, Charles decided to make an attempt at invading Russia, but this ended in a decisive Russian victory at the Battle of Poltava in After a long march exposed to Cossack raids, the Russian Tsar Peter the Great 's scorched-earth techniques and the extremely cold winter ofthe Swedes stood weakened with a shattered morale and were enormously outnumbered against the Russian army at Poltava.
The defeat meant the beginning of the end for the Swedish Empire. In addition, the plague raging in East Central Europe devastated the Swedish dominions and reached Central Sweden in Charles XII attempted to invade Norway inbut he was shot dead at Fredriksten fortress in The Swedes were not militarily defeated at Fredriksten, but the whole structure and organisation of the campaign fell apart with the king's death, and the army withdrew. Forced to cede large areas of land in the Treaty of Nystad inSweden also lost its place as an empire and as the dominant state on the Baltic Sea.
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- Stockholm [a] is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries ;  [b] , people live in the municipality ,  approximately 1.
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