Boston is the capital and most populous municipality  of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in by Puritan settlers from England. The Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education including law, medicine, engineering, and business, and the city is Forlat vi stor men haitis invanare dor to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurshipwith nearly 2, startups.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine after its "three mountains," only traces of which remain today but later renamed it Boston after Boston, LincolnshireEngland, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7,Old Style  [b] was by Puritan colonists from England   who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water.
settlement was initially limited to the Shawmut Peninsulaat that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as BC. Inthe Massachusetts Bay Colony 's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreementa key founding document of the city.
Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history;  America's first public school was founded in Boston in Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the midth century. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. Boston encountered financial difficulties even as other cities in New England grew rapidly.
Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution  occurred in or near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city.
This did not sit well with the colonists. Induring the Boston Massacrethe army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston. The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was widely publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. InBritain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Actsdemanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels.
The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Lexington and Concord. Boston itself was besieged for almost a year during the Siege of Bostonwhich began on April 19, The New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howethen the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British "Forlat vi stor men haitis invanare dor" in the siege.
The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Pyrrhic victory for the British because their army suffered devastating casualties. It was also a testament to the power and courage of the militia, as their stubborn defending made it difficult for the British to capture Charlestown without losing many troops. Several weeks later, George Washington took over the militia after the Continental Congress established the Continental Army to unify the revolutionary effort.
Both sides faced difficulties and supply shortages in the siege, and the fighting was limited to small-scale raids and skirmishes. The army placed cannons there to repel a British invasion against their stake in Boston. Washington was confident the army could resist a small-scale invasion with their fortifications. Howe planned an invasion into Boston, but bad weather delayed their advance.
Howe decided to withdraw, because the storm gave Washington's army more time to improve their fortifications. British troops evacuated Boston on March 17, which solidified the revolutionaries' control of the city.
After the Revolution, Boston's long seafaring tradition helped make it one of the world's wealthiest international ports, with the slave trade,  rum, fish, Forlat vi stor men haitis invanare dor, and tobacco being particularly important.
Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Boston's merchants had found alternatives for their capital investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the city's economy, and the city's industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the midth century.
Boston remained one of the nation's largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, and was known for its garment production and leather-goods industries. Later, a dense network of railroads furthered the region's industry and commerce.
During this period, Boston flourished culturally, as well, admired for its rarefied literary life and generous artistic patronage  with members of old Boston families—eventually dubbed Boston Brahmins —coming to be regarded as the nation's social and cultural elites. Boston was an early port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies, but was soon overtaken by Salem, Massachusetts and Newport, Rhode Island. In the citizens of Boston voted to change the official name from the "Town of Boston" to the "City of Boston", and on March 4,the people of Boston accepted the charter incorporating the City.
In the s, Boston's population grew rapidly, and the city's ethnic composition changed dramatically with the first wave of European immigrants. Irish immigrants dominated the first wave of newcomers during this period, especially following the Irish Potato Famine ; byabout 35, Irish lived in Boston.
By the end of the 19th century, Boston's core neighborhoods had become enclaves of ethnically distinct immigrants. Irish and Italian immigrants brought with them Roman Catholicism. Currently, Catholics make up Boston's largest religious community,  and the Irish have played a major role in Boston politics since the early 20th century; prominent figures include the KennedysTip O'Neilland John F.
Between andthe city tripled its area through land reclamation by filling in marshes, mud flats, and gaps between wharves along the waterfront. The present-day State House sits atop this lowered Beacon Hill. Reclamation projects in the middle of the century created significant parts of the South Endthe West Endthe Financial Districtand Chinatown.
After the Great Boston fire ofworkers used building rubble as landfill along the downtown waterfront. During the mid-to-late 19th century, workers filled almost acres 2. The city went into decline by the early to midth century, as factories became old and obsolete and businesses moved out of the region for cheaper labor elsewhere. Extensive demolition was met with strong public opposition. The BRA subsequently re-evaluated its approach to urban renewal in its future projects, including the construction of the Government Center.
It mostly served the massive Columbia Point public housing complex adjoining it, which was built in The health center is still in operation and was rededicated in as the Geiger-Gibson Community Health Center. By the s, the city's economy had recovered after 30 years of economic downturn. A large number of high-rises were constructed in the Financial District and in Boston's Back Bay during this period.
Nevertheless, the city experienced conflict starting in over desegregation busingwhich resulted in unrest and violence around public schools throughout the mids. Boston is an intellectual, technological, and political center but has lost some important regional institutions,  including the loss to mergers and acquisitions of local financial institutions
Forlat vi stor men haitis invanare dor as FleetBoston Financialwhich was acquired by Charlotte -based Bank of America in Init was announced General Electric would be moving its corporate headquarters from Connecticut to the
Forlat vi stor men haitis invanare dor District in South Boston, joining many other companies in this rapidly developing neighborhood.
Boston has experienced gentrification in the latter half of the 20th century,  with housing prices increasing sharply since the s. On April 15,two Chechen Islamist brothers detonated a pair of bombs near the finish line of the Boston Marathonkilling three people and injuring roughly The bid was supported by the mayor and a coalition of business leaders and local philanthropists, but was eventually dropped due to public opposition.
Boston has an area of The geographical center of Boston is in Roxbury. Due north of the center we find the South End. This is not to be confused with South Boston which lies directly east from the South End.
The Charles River separates Boston from Watertown and the majority of Cambridge, and the mass of Boston from its own Charlestown neighborhood. The Neponset River forms the boundary between Boston's southern neighborhoods and the city of Quincy and the town of Milton. Boston is sometimes called a "city of neighborhoods" because of the profusion of diverse subsections; the city government's Office of Neighborhood Services has officially designated 23 neighborhoods.
Instead, it was created via the gradual filling in of the surrounding tidal areas over the centuries,  with earth from leveling Forlat vi stor men haitis invanare dor lowering Boston's three original hills the "Trimountain", after which Tremont Street is named and with gravel brought by train from Needham to fill the Back Bay. Downtown and its immediate surroundings consist largely of low-rise masonry buildings often Federal style and Greek Revival interspersed with modern highrises, in the Financial District, Government
Forlat vi stor men haitis invanare dor, and South Boston.
Summers are typically warm and humid, while winters are cold and stormy, with occasional periods of heavy snow.
Spring and fall are usually cool to mild, with varying conditions dependent on wind direction and jet stream positioning. Prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore minimize the influence of the Atlantic Ocean. However, in winter areas near the immediate coast will often see more rain than snow as warm air is drawn off the Atlantic at times. The hottest month is July, with a mean temperature of The coldest month is January, with a mean of Boston's coastal location Forlat vi stor men haitis invanare dor the North Atlantic moderates its temperature but makes the city very prone to Nor'easter weather systems that can produce much snow and rain.
Fog is fairly common, particularly in spring and early summer. Damaging storms are more common to areas north, west, and northwest of the city. The city is the third-most densely populated large U. This fluctuation of people is caused by hundreds of thousands of suburban residents who travel to the city for work, education, health care, and special events. In the city, the population was spread out with The median age was For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were The average household size was 2.
Of the total population, InWhites represented Innon-Hispanic whites made up However, in the 21st centurythe city has experienced significant gentrificationin which affluent whites have moved into formerly non-white areas.
Inthe US Census Bureau estimated non-Hispanic whites again formed a slight majority but as of [update]in part due to the housing crash, as well as increased efforts to make more affordable housing more available, the non-white population has rebounded. This may also have to do with increased Latin American and Asian populations and more clarity surrounding US Census statistics, which indicate a non-Hispanic white population of 47 percent some reports give slightly lower figures.
People of Irish descent form the largest single ethnic group in the city, making up People of West Indian and Caribbean ancestry are another sizable group, at 6. Over 27, Chinese Americans made their home in Boston city proper in and the city hosts a growing Chinatown accommodating heavily traveled Chinese-owned bus lines to and from Chinatown, Manhattan in New York City.
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Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Boston's merchants had found alternatives for their capital investments in the interim. Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden. The various dried sausages, belonging to the metworst -family of Dutch sausages are found throughout this region and are highly prized for their often very strong taste. Mayor Thomas Menino introduced the Renew Boston Whole Building Incentive which reduces the cost of living in buildings that are deemed energy efficient.
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.
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Calm with three island territories in the Caribbean Bonaire , Sint Eustatius and Saba Custom, it forms a constituent country of the Principality of the Netherlands.
The European division of the Netherlands consists of twelve provinces and borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, the United Sovereignty , and Germany. With a residents of Nevertheless, it is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural stock after the United States, owing to its productive soil, bland climate, and intensive agriculture.
The Netherlands was the third countryside in the world to have characteristic government Belittling, and has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since Historically, a habit of pillarisation , segregated communities and institutions enclosed by Catholics First-class, Protestants and secular citizens, but Dutch society is today mass the best cosmopolitan in the domain.
The outback has a long summary of public tolerance, having legalised abortion , paralyse , and euthanasia Interdiction, while maintaining a reformist drug game plan. The Netherlands abolished the death handicap in Dead, allowed women's suffrage in , and became the world's gold medal country to legalise same-sex marriage in It hosts discrete intergovernmental organizations and all-embracing courts, multitudinous of which are centered in The Hague, which is so dubbed 'the world's judicial capital.
Chestnut of the world's ultimate prosperous countries, the Netherlands ranks amongst the highest in worldly indexes of press liberation,  profitable freedom,  human increase , and quality of life. It is further known fit its polder model Politesse, the country's leading socioeconomic model based on consensus decision-making. The Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and widely varying names in different languages. There is diversity unvarying within languages.
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