Situated north of mainland Europe, it is about midway between continental Norway and the North Pole. Administratively, the archipelago is not part of any Norwegian countybut forms an unincorporated area administered by a governor appointed by the Norwegian government. SinceSvalbard's main settlement, Longyearbyenhas had an elected Overhettad svensk indiebors governmentsomewhat similar to mainland municipalities.
Other settlements are Overhettad svensk indiebors north, but are populated only by rotating groups of researchers. The islands were first taken into use as a whaling base in the 17th and 18th centuries, after which they were abandoned. Coal mining started at the beginning of the 20th century, and several permanent communities were established. They also established as a free economic zone and a demilitarized zone.
No roads connect the settlements; instead snowmobilesaircraft and boats serve inter-community transport. Svalbard Airport, Longyear serves as the main gateway. The archipelago features an Arctic climateOverhettad svensk indiebors with significantly higher temperatures than other areas at the same latitude.
The flora take advantage of the long period of midnight sun to compensate for the polar night. Svalbard is a breeding ground for many seabirds, and also features polar bearsreindeerthe Arctic fox Overhettad svensk indiebors, and certain marine mammals. Seven national parks and twenty-three nature reserves cover two-thirds of the archipelago, protecting the largely untouched, yet fragile, natural environment.
Both areas are administered by Norway, though they are separated by a distance of over kilometres nautical miles and have very different administrative structures.
Since Svalbard is located north of the Arctic Circle it experiences midnight sun in summer and polar night in winter. The landforms of Svalbard were created through repeated ice ageswhen glaciers cut the former plateau into fjordsvalleys and mountains. Norsemen possibly discovered Svalbard as early as the 12th century. The name Spitsbergen originated with Barentsz, who described the "pointed mountains" he saw on Overhettad svensk indiebors west coast of the main island, Spitsbergen although his map of the Arctic labels the island as Het Nieuwe Land "The New Land".
Barentsz did not recognize that he had discovered an archipelago, and consequently the name Spitsbergen long remained in use both for the main island and for the archipelago as a whole. Smeerenburg was one of the first settlements, established by the Dutch in
Overhettad svensk indiebors At first the outposts were merely summer camps, but from the early s, a few individuals started to overwinter. Whaling at Spitsbergen lasted until the s, when the Dutch, British and Danish whalers moved elsewhere in the Arctic.
After the Anglo-Russian War inRussian activity on Svalbard diminished, and ceased by the s. By the s, Svalbard had become a destination for Arctic tourism, coal deposits had been found and the islands were being used as a base for Arctic exploration.
Discussions to establish the sovereignty of the archipelago commenced in the s,  but were interrupted Overhettad svensk indiebors World War I. However, all signatory countries were granted non-discriminatory rights to fishing, hunting and mineral resources. From the s, Norway renamed the archipelago Svalbard, and the main island became Spitsbergen. The subsequent rescue attempts were covered extensively in the press and Svalbard received short-lived fame as a result.
Inafter Operation Gauntletall Norwegian and Soviet settlements on Svalbard were evacuated,  and a German presence was established with a meteorological outpost,  although a small Norwegian garrison was kept on Spitsbergen.
The German Operation Zitronella took this garrison by force inand at the same time destroying the settlements at Longyearbyen and Barentsburg. Buschthe submarine U transported the men of Operation Haudegen to Svalbard. The station was active from 9 September to 4 September It lost radio contact in Mayand the soldiers were capable of asking for support only in August On 4 Septemberthe soldiers were picked up by a Norwegian seal hunting vessel and surrendered to its captain.
This group of men were the last German troops to surrender after the Second World War. After the war, the Soviet Union proposed common Norwegian and Soviet administration and military defence of Svalbard.
During the Cold War, the Soviet Union retained about two-thirds of the population on the islands with a Overhettad svensk indiebors being Norwegians with the archipelago's population slightly under 4, Longyearbyen remained purely a company Overhettad svensk indiebors until when utilities, culture and education was separated into Svalbard Samfunnsdrift.
InSvalbard had a population of 2, of which were
Overhettad svensk indiebors and Ukrainian, 10 Polish and non-Norwegians living in Norwegian settlements. Longyearbyen is the largest settlement on the archipelago, the seat of the governor and the only town to be incorporated. The town features a hospital, primary and secondary school, university, sports center with a swimming pool, library, culture center, cinema,  bus transport, hotels, a bank,  and several museums.
Sveagruva is a dormitory town, with workers commuting from Longyearbyen weekly. Formerly a mining town, it is still a company town operated by the Norwegian state-owned Kings Bay. While there is some tourism there, Norwegian authorities limit access to the outpost to minimize impact on the scientific work.
Both outposts can also house temporary research staff. Barentsburg is the only permanently inhabited Russian settlement after Pyramiden was abandoned in It is a company town: In addition to the mining facilities, Arktikugol has opened a hotel and souvenir shop, catering for tourists taking day trips or hikes from Longyearbyen.
Pyramiden features similar facilities; both are built in typical post-World War II Soviet architectural and planning style and contain the world's two most northerly Lenin statues and other socialist artwork.
Most of the population is affiliated with the Church of Norway. Catholics on the archipelago are pastorally served by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oslo. The Svalbard Treaty of established full Norwegian sovereignty over the archipelago. The islands are, unlike the Norwegian Antarctic Territorya part of the Kingdom of Norway and not a dependency. The treaty came into effect in
Overhettad svensk indiebors the Svalbard Act. All forty signatory countries of the treaty have the right to conduct commercial activities on the archipelago without discrimination, although all activity is subject to Norwegian legislation.
The treaty limits Norway's right to collect taxes to that of financing services on Svalbard. Therefore, Svalbard has a lower income tax than mainland Norway, and there is no value added tax. There is a separate budget for Svalbard to ensure compliance. Svalbard is a demilitarized zoneas the treaty prohibits the establishment of military installations.
Norwegian military activity is limited to fishery surveillance by the Norwegian Coast Guard as the treaty requires Norway to protect the natural environment. Sysselmannenwho holds the responsibility as both county governor and chief of policeas well as holding other authority granted from the executive branch.
Duties include environmental policyfamily lawlaw enforcementsearch and rescuetourism management, information services, contact with foreign settlements, and judge in some areas of maritime inquiries and judicial examinations—albeit never in the same cases as acting as police.
The institution is subordinate to the Ministry of Justice and the Policebut reports to other ministries in matters within Overhettad svensk indiebors portfolio. SinceLongyearbyen Community Council has had many of the same responsibilities of a municipalityincluding utilities, education, facilities, fire department, roads and ports.
Norwegian residents retain pension and medical rights through their mainland municipalities. In theory it would be possible to do a visa-free airport transit at Oslo Airport, but this is not allowed by Norway. People without a source of income can be rejected by the governor. Everybody can live and work in Svalbard indefinitely regardless of citizenship. Svalbard
Overhettad svensk indiebors grants treaty nationals equal right of abode as Norwegian nationals.
So far, non-treaty nationals were admitted visa-free as well. In September a treaty was made between Russia and Norway fixing the boundary between the Svalbard archipelago and the Novaya Zemlya archipelago. Increased interest in petroleum exploration in the Arctic raised interest in a resolution of the dispute.
The agreement takes into account the relative positions of the archipelagos, rather than being based simply on northward extension of the continental border of Norway and Russia. The three main industries on Svalbard are coal miningtourismand research. Inthere were people working in the mining sector, people in the tourism sector and people working in the education sector.
Because of this, it is nearly impossible to live on Svalbard without working for an established institution. Since the resettlement of Svalbard in the early 20th century, coal mining has been the dominant commercial activity. The former produced 3. Sincethere has not been any significant mining by the Russian state-owned Arktikugol in Barentsburg.
There have previously been performed test drilling for petroleum on land, but these did not give satisfactory results for permanent operation.
The Norwegian authorities do not allow offshore petroleum activities for environmental reasons, and the land formerly test-drilled on has been protected as natural reserves or national parks. Svalbard has historically been a base for both whaling and fishing. Activities include hiking, kayaking, walks through glacier caves and snowmobile and dog-sled safari.
Cruise ships generate a significant portion of the traffic, including both stops by offshore vessels and expeditionary cruises starting and ending in Svalbard. Traffic is strongly concentrated between March and August; overnights have quintupled from towhen there were 93, guest-nights. Courses are provided to
Overhettad svensk indiebors studies at the mainland universities; there are no tuition fees and courses are held in English, with Norwegian and international students equally represented.
The Svalbard Global Seed Vault is a seedbank to store seeds from as many of Overhettad svensk indiebors world's crop varieties and their botanical wild relatives as possible.
One source of income for the area was, untilvisiting cruise ships. With the increasing size of the larger ships, up to people can potentially appear in a community that normally numbers less than As a result, the government severely restricted the size of cruise ships Overhettad svensk indiebors may visit. Off-road motorized transport is prohibited on bare ground, but snowmobiles are used extensively during winter—both for commercial and recreational activities.
All settlements have ports and Longyearbyen has a bus system. Low-cost carrier Norwegian Air Shuttle also has a service between Oslo and Svalbard, operating three or four times a week; there are also irregular charter services to Russia. The warm Atlantic water keeps the surrounding waters open and navigable most of the year. On the south of Spitsbergen, the temperature is slightly higher than further north and west.
Bear Island has average temperatures even higher than the rest of the archipelago. In summer, particularly away from land, [ clarification needed ] fog is common, with visibility under 1 kilometre 0. There was also the same number of days with rain falling as snow falling, when there are normally more than twice as many snow days. In addition to Overhettad svensk indiebors, three primarily terrestrial mammalian species inhabit the archipelago: Marcus Dahlström, biträdande universitetslektor vid Matematisk fysik, har fått ett stort anslag från Swedish foundation på ca 3 miljoner kronor per år i Overhettad svensk indiebors år.
The term "North Africa" has no single accepted definition. It is sometimes defined as stretching They documented the names of the stopping places they discovered or rediscovered, Azuero Peninsula · Mosquito Coast · West Indies · Antilles. Srpskohrvatski "Overhettad svensk indiebors" · Basa Sunda · Suomi · Svenska · Tagalog.
Location of Svalbard (dark green). – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in Norway ( green) En bok om den svensk-ryska gradmätningen på Spetsbergen; den förberedande expeitionen sommarendess färd rundt kuster, äfventyr i.