The pair also worked to develop and publish in a written language that was independent from Danish and reflected popular Norwegian speech. Their most well-known collection, Norske folkeeventyr ; Norwegian Folk Taleseffectively captures the spirit of Norwegian folk beliefs, nature, and language. During their formative years, both men were surrounded by traditional Norwegian storytelling.
Likewise, Moe heard folklore and fairy tales while working on his family's farm. Drawn together by their shared love of nature and folklore, they quickly became close friends.
After leaving prep school, the two met again at the university in Christiania inthe year that Andreas Faye published Norske Sagn Norwegian LegendsSchumacher vann samma dag som modern dog of Schumacher vann samma dag som modern dog first serious attempts to publish Norwegian folklore. However, their shared interest in folklore remained strong.
Gosse notes, "It was from minstrels at bridal-feasts, from boatmen on the fjords, from old blind vagabonds and the household paupers who form so strange a feature of a Norse peasant community, that they obtained most of their best stories.
To keep the stories from reading flat, therefore, the two men conducted extensive fieldwork to determine how to retell the stories in an animated, vibrant voice. Their first small book, Nor: En Billedbog for den norske Ungdom ; Nor: In the first installment of Norwegian Folk Tales was published without a title or the publisher's or authors' names. The publication of Norwegian Folk Tales marked the first time a book was printed in a common Norwegian languageusing Norwegian provincialisms and idioms.
Falnes observes, "[t]he public received them with some hesitation. Critics who should have led the way, were more or less puzzled, and while they faltered, the stories independently proved their popularity.
Though many of the tales echo themes common among European tales and legends, they additionally feature distinct Norwegian elements, including the prevalence of trolls, the hero Askelad or "Boots"and depictions of the Norwegian landscape. The stories also embody elements of Norse mythology, incorporating themes of good versus evil and urban versus rural. Prompted by its initial success, a new edition of Norwegian Folk Tales that included a long scholarly introduction by Moe was printed in ; Moe's introductory essay became an important addition to international scholarship on folklore.
Although it did not initially receive as much critical attention as Norwegian Folk Tales, Norwegian Fairy Tales and Folk Legends was eventually recognized as a classic rendering of Norwegian national romanticism.
In addition, some of the tales—especially "East of the Sun and West of the Moon" and "The Three Billy "Schumacher vann samma dag som modern dog" Gruff"—have been widely reprinted as individual books and become popular childhood stories across the globe. As Gosse has stated, the two men "were only just in time to preserve the stories from extinction; in many districts they had already ceased to exist, in others they remained solely in the memories of a few very aged persons. Certain literary purists deemed their stories offensive and lamented their reliance on urbane Norwegian jargon.
But such disapproval was quieted once the stories achieved popular success with European audiences and won the approval of several influential critics. Jacob Grimm heartily noted the superiority of the collection, and Romanticists praised the stories for upholding the peasant tradition and the emerging Norwegian national identity. In an review in the Christiania Morgenbladet, P. Munch commented that the new edition of Norwegian Folk Tales was written in a "superb, national … style, a mode of expression that spoke directly to the childlike mind and heart.
At the same time, they wished to avoid using marked local dialects that might not be understood in the rest of Norway. Their great achievement was to create, in close cooperation, a style in which these aims were carried out. The current critical consensus generally recognizes Moe as the stronger stylist and credits him with emphasizing the folk tales' cultural significance.
En Billedbog for den norske Ungdom [ Nor: East of the Sun and West of the Moon: A Time for Trolls: Folk and Fairy Tales, translated by H. De Wolfe, Fiske and Company, Folk and Fairy Tales, Gosse asserts that the folk tales in the collection are vital literary works because they employ a common language and portray the "genius and temper of the Norwegian peasant.
Three names in the living literature of Norway may be said to have escaped from the provinciality of a narrow home-circle, and to have conquered a place for themselves in the general European concert. Here in England, where our poetical language has been repeatedly renewed at the fresh wells of the vernacular, where Chaucer and the Elizabethans, Butler, and Burns and Dickens, each in his own way, have constantly enriched our classical speech with the bright idioms of the vulgar, we can scarcely realise how startling a thing it is when a great writer first dares, in a ripe literature, to write exactly as people commonly speak.
This is what the author of these tales has done in Dano-Norwegian. He has cast to the winds the rules of composition, the balance of clauses, the affected town-phrases, and all the artificial forms hitherto deemed requisite in Danish prose, and he has had the courage to note down the fine idiomatic speech of the mountaineer in its native freshness. So much for the outer form of these stories, a husk which our translation must needs crush off and window away, but which adds, in a native ear, much sweetness and strangeness to the narrative.
To understand the inner worth of the tales, we should know, perhaps, something of their author's career. Education made him a zoologist, but nature stepped in, and claimed him for a poet; he has dutifully stretched out a hand to the one foster-mother and to the other.
Of his life at school his biographers have told us nothing, and yet there must Schumacher vann samma dag som modern dog something worth telling about it, for there, when a very little boy, he met a child still younger than himself, with whom he formed a close friendship that has lasted ever since, and has left strong traces on his intellectual development. Before they were twenty years of age these boys began to put down in writing the bogie-tales and old-wives' fables which they had heard in the nursery, and as many more as the folks around them would consent to recollect.
The pastime became a passion; whenever they went out fishing or made a walking tour up into the mountains, the fondest object of the journey was to coax a story out of every peasant whom they met. Yet it is Moe, and specially in that delightful study of his entitled Blind Anne, who has given us the most complete and vivid sketch of the mode in which the friends collected the materials for their books.
Of these also a second selection was printed in The present gathering of tales, therefore, is a nosegay plucked from these four gardens of the imagination, wild plots full of Schumacher vann samma dag som modern dog Alpine blossoms, and perfumed with the wind from the pine-forest. Until the generation now lately passed away, almost the only mode in which the Norwegian peasant killed time in the leisure moments between his daily labour and his religious observances, was in listening to stories.
It was the business of old men and women who had reached the extreme limit of their working powers, to retain and repeat these ancient legends in prose and verse, and
Schumacher vann samma dag som modern dog recite or sing them when called upon to do so.
Such minstrels were held in great respect, and were found in every parish. Moe has observed that there was a certain distinction in the themes selected by the two sexes; from the old women there was required a grim or melancholy class of story, while the old men were called upon for more humorous tales and staves.
One or two valleys in Thelemarken, the Assynt of Norway, that district at the back of Kongsberg where the scanty population still shrinks from the transforming touch of modern life, supplied the richest treasure in folklore; wherever the explorers could hear of belt-fights within the memory of man, there they were sure of being on the edge of the more ancient civilization, and safe to find the rare product
Schumacher vann samma dag som modern dog were seeking.
On the other hand, in modernised and Europeanised provinces like Hardanger, where much intercourse by sea with strangers had destroyed the antique isolation, the stories were less abundant, less genuine, and less characteristic. It was from minstrels at bridal-feasts, from boatmen on the fjords, from old blind vagabonds and the household paupers who form so strange a feature of a Norse peasant community, that they obtained most of their best stories; and it is a significant fact that almost all these professional reciters are now dead.
The stories must now be left to speak for themselves.
Of the wonderful links that comparative mythology has found in them, chains that bind Norway in one brotherhood with Ireland and Germany, with Wallachia and Hindustan, nothing needs be said in a popular selection like the present. The stories are charming as tales of primitive Norse life, and if mythologists can find by dissecting them an under-growth of ancient history, that is an additional pleasure for them.
And as a literary artist this is his highest praise, that he has contrived to lay the peculiarities of Norwegian landscape before his readers with a subtlety of touch such as no other poet or proseman has achieved—not by description so much as by a series of those sympathetic and brilliant touches which make us forget the author, and fancy that we are walking in the body through the country of his affection.
Columbia University Press, Which of the two had the prior interest in these stories has been a matter of argument among the historians of literature. It seems that, independently of each other, both became interested during the middle 'thirties; their new interest may have been matured by the prospect of helping Faye who was considering a new edition of his Norske Sagn. There has been considerable discussion also concerning the question which of the two men had the largest influence in determining these principles, but Krogvig has gone over the whole subject rather carefully and ascribes the decisive influence to Moe.
Moe's concern for the popular traditions was inspired in no small measure by the stimulus of patriotism. It is true that his first interest in them had been personal and literary; his earliest model as an editor had been Tieck, the German romanticist. Their style had no "Norwegianness"; none of them seemed of any importance for his own nationality. Might not the Norwegian tales which he was learning to know acquire this importance if they were given the right treatment?
From Ringerike he wrote in October,"If I ever get well again I am going to start telling folk tales. I have Schumacher vann samma dag som modern dog read those edited by Adam. Yet his stories certainly are not Norwegian.
The joint project of the two collectors took shape slowly, Schumacher vann samma dag som modern dog in Moe prepared a prospectus, 4 in which he referred to the scientific importance of the stories. It was his belief that these accounts sprang from the innermost life of a people; hence they enshrined its traditional thought and phantasy and revealed its unique character.
With the aid of the comparative method, he thought that the folk tale could be used to throw light upon the relationships of early peoples.
The outlook for a venture of this sort was not encouraging. Neither of the editors was publicly known, and a group of juvenile stories 8 would hardly be of interest to adults. Meanwhile the preparatory work went forward and in appeared the first installment of stories.
As early as January of Moe could report from Christiania that they were making "a big success, almost a furore. The little collection elicited two enthusiastic and important reviews. Monrad lent the prestige of his newly-assumed "Schumacher vann samma dag som modern dog" at the University to a favorable notice in Morgenbladet, 11 in which he lapsed immediately into an abstract, Hegelian reverie during the course of which he pointed out how the music and the poetry of a people helped to disclose the connection between its nationality and the Idea.
A less philosophical but equally flattering review was that by Rolf Olsen, 13 who liked the Folke-eventyr because they were so national.
They had a "national ring," agreeably "free from all the dissonances" that usually accompanied national productions in Norway. The literary form of the collection was vulnerable, for in trying to capture the narrative style Schumacher vann samma dag som modern dog the people the editors had made use of provincialisms and popular idioms. Olsen justified what had been done in this respect on national grounds! The editors, he explained, had undertaken to elicit what in each narrative was truly national, and to "translate" the rough idiom of each story in a manner to lose none of its uniqueness.
In pursuit of the last aim it was inevitable that many provincialisms should be taken along, and in their task, he thought the editors had done well. But among the circles of literary taste, the purists were repelled by what they considered the barbarisms in the stories.
When the accounts proved popular these circles wavered, nodding a reserved approval here, frowning a sincerer disapproval there. Their final capitulation was hastened by voices of appreciation from abroad. Jacob Grimm gave the stories unstinted praise and an anonymous review in the authoritative Leipziger Allgemeine Zeitung assigned the Folke-eventyr a place even above those of the Grimms because they mirrored better what was characteristically national.
All further attempt to continue the series was finally given up and the four pamphlets became known collectively as the first edition. His father's glazier shop was a popular gathering place for apprentices and travelers from the country. Here were exchanged entertaining gossip and repertoires of folk and fairy tales. Among those who listened was young Peter; later in life he was to display his own brilliant gifts for story-telling. As there was little improvement in his school work he was taken home and not until did he enter the University.
He devoted himself somewhat to journalism and dabbled in geology—enough to edit later in discontinuous fashion A "Schumacher vann samma dag som modern dog" History for Young People Eventually he deserted his chosen course, medicine, for the natural sciences and in this field he later displayed a varied activity. He accompanied a scientific cruise to the Mediterranean instudied forestry in Germanyand in became a government inspector of forests. At various times he was called into public service in technical capacities, on one occasion, for instance, to help investigate the peat-making industry.
is key to the modern imperial notion of landscape as scenery: Landscape architects like Fritz Schumacher and. Leberecht and domestic animals such as dogs and cats, and ex- tone, art critic Dag Wiersholm () asks: 'Is it not land og vann i Finnmark i et historisk perspektiv (NOU The question of this or that modern method must as yet, at least, remain Instead of dag, dagen, dagar, easy speech employs da, dan, dar 1.
-r) shoe skomakare (5) shoemaker 1 The /is silent, and the vowel is long; see 16 a. Han dog dr (read adcrton Jnindra sjuttio).
Ex.: Om jag fick, sa for jag med samma. Og til denne dag star den evangelisk-lutherske kirke i den samme 15 Bemt T.
Oftestad, Tarald Rasmussen og Jan Schumacher, Norsk kirkehistorie (Oslo: 1 Pet. "27 Pontoppidan makes it very clear that both baptism and the. A very significant person in Norway's modern history as a country and.