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Jakt for starkare algstam 3


Dati Regionali check list 1 Dati Regionali check list Dr. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has generously supported the work economically. We are "Jakt for starkare algstam 3" also to all the following people who Jakt for starkare algstam 3 various ways have contributed to the Red List. It is barely a decade since both the EU and the UN declared that the loss of the world biodiversity should be halted by It is already clear that this goal will not be met, either globally or within Sweden.

At the same time, there are glimmers of light in this Red List which show that conservation work has led to positive results in many areas, not least for a number of mammals, birds and amphibians.

The Red List is, as far as is possible, an objective report of the status of the flora and fauna of Sweden. The categories of the Red List do not include evaluations of how urgent it is to preserve or protect a given species, but are assessments of the risk that a species will become extinct.

The work has been performed by over of the counties most Jakt for starkare algstam 3 experts, led by Swedish Species Information Centre species specialists. To fully understand the analyses, and give the possibility for other parties to assess these categorisations and contribute complementary data, the preliminary results were put on the Swedish Species Information Centre website for 3 months during From today, it is the official Swedish Red List, replacing that from It is our hope that all those who affect the Swedish environment — landowners, rural industry, authorities, conservation groups and private individuals — should use the Red List as an important source of information and the basis for their work in maintaining the sustainable use of biological resources and the protection of biodiversity.

How is the Red List produced? Which taxa can be assessed? National application of the Red List criteria The Red List is, as far as possible, an objective report of the status of the flora and fauna of Sweden. Within the categories of the Red List, there is no element of how pressing it is to protect a species, the analyses are strictly an assessment of the risk of extinction. According to the so-called Biodiversity Target, the loss of biological diversity should have been halted by However, it can be concluded that despite a number of positive signs, there continues to be a widespread loss of biodiversity, and the population of more than 2, red-listed species continues to decline.

It is apparent that the Biodiversity Target is not going to be met. This means that Sweden will also be unable to meet the first two interim targets of the 16th Swedish environmental objective A rich diversity of plant- and animal life. The number of species which now qualify for the Red List is 4, Andelen arter som kategoriseras som hotade, dvs. The species which are categorised as threatened, i.

A great deal of new knowledge has been generated, which has led to some species changing Red List category, often for the better but in many cases for the worst. There are relatively few category changes that are due to documented changes in the biological status of the species, but amongst these can a few glimmers of light be seen. Population development has been positive for a number of Jakt for starkare algstam 3 of mammals, birds and amphibians.

The four big predators — wolf, bear, wolverine and lynx — are all in a better situation, and therefore in a lower Red List category, than they were in "Jakt for starkare algstam 3" The progress of these four predators is the result of a successful predator management plan during the 's and 's. The situation has, during the same period, been continuously improving for several amphibians due to active conservation work. On the other hand, a number of other species, including several which are still relatively common have now been red-listed due to strong reduction in their population.

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This is the case for eider, herring gull, black guillemot, common sandpiper and common swift, which are now listed in the category Near Threatened. In the case of the three first species, the explanation can lie partially in a shortage of food, predation from mink and from a deficiency in vitamin B1.

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The situation for Swedish fish continues to be gloomy. The continued high pressure from trawling, in combination with the effects of sediment deposition and nutrient leaching into the sea has hit hard on the marine bottom fauna.

It appears that the marine environment, including the brackish water of Baltic, is the environment which has suffered the worst development trends. The development for freshwater species has, on the whole, been positive during the last decade, largely due to improved water quality and good conservation measures, including the creation of new water bodies and wetlands. A rapid rise in humus in many areas of water is a cause of concern for species such as freshwater algae.

Amongst freshwater species which have had a negative population trend are European crayfish, which have been hit hard by parasitic fungus, crayfish plague and are now classified as Critically Endangered. The warm summers during the first years of the th 20 century have been positive for a large number of insects, such as species of Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera and Orthoptera. At the same time many populations of Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera are declining. This is due to reduced access to pollen and nectar producing plants because of the deficiency of unfertilized pastures.

Changes in the regulations for agricultural subsidies — especially the definition of grazing land within the farm support scheme — have led to major thinning of valuable trees and bushes in many Jakt for starkare algstam 3 grazing systems, to the detriment of many insects, fungi and lichens.

The quality of the species rich, sandy dry areas of land continues to deteriorate as a result of a mixture of overgrowth and over exploitation. The accelerated spread of the fungal diseases, Dutch elm disease and ash dieback are major causes of concern.

Outbreaks have led Jakt for starkare algstam 3 falling Jakt for starkare algstam 3 of host trees, which has led to European white elm Ulmus laevis, which was already listed as Vulnerable being joined on the Red List by Wych elm U.

In many areas, sick or even healthy mature ash trees are being sawn down, despite which it is not slowing the spread of the disease and having severe negative impact on species for which elm is the host.

In Norrland, large areas of old-growth forest are still being felled, which has a negative impact on many species of fungi, lichen, bryophytes and insects that are dependent on that habitat. In southern and central Sweden thickening caused by brushwood in broadleaved forests is a serious problem for a large number of species that are dependent on open, grazed forest environments.

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Recovery programmes for threatened species, which focus on species with such a highly specialised lifecycle or under such an unusual threat that general measures and conservation programmes do not help, have aided a number of specialist species. It is therefore important "Jakt for starkare algstam 3" such programmes are allowed to continue.

Finally, it should be pointed out that two Red List categories have changed their Swedish name. The Swedish terms will thus have moved closer to the English terms and to those used in neighbouring countries.

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There are two versions of the Red List; this book and a digital version found at www. The latter also contains a documentation of the data underlying the assessments, and a possibility to generate lists by means of user-selected search parameters.

For the majority of the red-listed species there are also species information sheets describing their morphology, life history, distribution, population status, threats and suggested conservation measures. Huruvida en art uppfyller IUCN: The Red List is a straightforward presentation of this analysis. The assessment is not affected by other factors, such as whether or not there are particular biological or sentimental Jakt for starkare algstam 3 for preserving the species in question, or if it is protected by law or included in any conventions.

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The only purpose is to quantify the relative extinction risk as impartially as possible. The fact that the Red List presents the extinction risk faced by individual species means that it may provide important background information for, e. When prioritising between conservation measures a range of other factors should, however, also be taken into account. These factors may include the global or European Red List status of the species concerned, the proportion of the global or European population occurring in Sweden, whether or not the reasons behind the threats are known and possible to counteract, whether species-specific measures are required or more general measures would suffice and the relative cost of such measures.

These principles were applied when the Swedish Species Information Centre and the Swedish Environmental Agency, working on the environmental objectives, generated a list of species-specific recovery programmes. In the present Red List, two categories have been given new Swedish names since and Other reasons for recategorisation include new information on the status of the assessed species, reinterpretation of previously known data, taxonomic changes altered species delimitations etc.

The reasons behind all recategorisations have been recorded in such a way that it is possible to distinguish between known, genuine status changes and changes caused by other factors.

We have also attempted to consistently estimate the level of uncertainty in the data, and uncertainty intervals such as maximum, minimum and most probable figure have been included in the assessments. An increasing number of national Red Lists are now based on the IUCN Categories and Criteria, which generates greater consistency and better comparability between different national Red Lists.

The Red List serves as an important indicator of the fulfilment of both national environmental objectives and international agreements, especially the biodiversity target http: According to the UN goal, the Jakt for starkare algstam 3 of biodiversity should be significantly reduced by According to the EU target, the loss of biodiversity should have been halted by The Swedish environmental objectives "Jakt for starkare algstam 3." A series of indicators of the fulfilment of these targets have been developed by the UNEP and the European Environment Agency in collaboration with other organisationsand one of them is known as the Red List Index see p.

The Red List Index RLI takes a value between 0 and 1, and it has been devised to indicate the estimated proportion of all species that will survive in a medium-term perspective c. In order to meet the global goal of a significant reduction in the loss of biodiversity by the trend needs to be positive, i.

In order to meet the EU target of halting the loss of biodiversity by the index value would have to be 1. The following presentation is merely a summary. A breeding species or lower taxon may only be assessed according to the Red List Criteria if it is indigenous to the country. In this case, an indigenous species is defined as a species that has colonized the country unaided by man, or Jakt for starkare algstam 3 that was introduced by man before and has established a naturalized and continuously reproducing population since then.

Species that have immigrated unaided by man i. The categories used in the Swedish Red List. Structure of the Red List Categories. All species belong to one of the categories, but only those assigned to either Jakt for starkare algstam 3 the here shaded categories are red-listed. In Sweden there is so far no species in the category Extinct EX.

If a species has not been evaluated it is conceptually categorized as Not Evaluated NE. If it does not qualify for assessment e. If it has been evaluated but failed to meet any of the criteria, it is categorised as Least Concern LC. On the global level, there is also the category Extinct in the Wild EW Jakt for starkare algstam 3, which is used if a species no longer occurs in the wild but still survives in cultivation, captivity or as a naturalised population well outside the past range.

Species that are strictly associated with a non-assessable species e. This group includes e. Lepidoptera species associated with black poplar Populus nigra. Theoretically, the criteria are applicable to all taxonomic categories at or below the species level.

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The assessment of taxa below the species level is, however, discouraged. A taxon must also be well defined in order to be assessed. This means that if the status of a taxon as a distinct species is uncertain, the taxon is for the time being normally categorised as Not Evaluated NE. A detailed description of the Red List Categories and Criteria, and the application of them, is presented in the Manual and guidelines for red-listing of Swedish species in Swedish; www.

A brief overview of the system is presented below. This practice serves to make Red Lists from different countries easier to understand. Tre älgskötselområden i Hylte, som vill se en större älgstam, fick års jakt, säger Martin Broberg, handläggare på länsstyrelsen i Halland. skogsbruk - hashtag new popular instagram photos and videos • PikTag. Skogsaktierna gick starkare än övriga börsen under inledningen på Jakt for starkare algstam 3. Bland annat gick SCA, Holmen och Billerud upp 1,3 procent samtidigt som Sveriges nya älgstam temat på seminariedag Kategorier: Friluftsliv & jakt.

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