Edison was raised in the American midwest and early in his career he worked as a telegraph operatorwhich inspired some of his earliest inventions. He would later establish a botanic laboratory in Fort Myers, Florida in collaboration with businessmen Henry Ford and Harvey Firestoneand a laboratory in West Orange, New Jersey that featured the world's first film studiothe Black Maria.
He was a prolific inventorholding 1, US patents in his nameas well as patents in other countries. Edison married twice and fathered six children. He died in of complications of diabetes. He was the seventh and last child of Samuel Ogden Edison Jr. By contrast, Samuel Jr. Once across the border, he found his way to Milan, Ohio. His patrilineal family line was Dutch by way of New Jersey;  the surname had originally been "Edeson.
Edison only attended school for a few months and was instead taught by his mother. Edison developed hearing problems at an early age. The cause of his deafness has been attributed to a bout of scarlet fever during childhood and recurring untreated middle-ear infections.
Around the middle of his career, Edison attributed the hearing impairment to being struck on the ears by a train conductor when his chemical laboratory in a boxcar caught fire and he was thrown off the train in Smiths Creek, Michiganalong with his apparatus and chemicals. In his later years, he modified the story to say the injury occurred when the conductor, in helping him onto a moving train, lifted him by the ears.
Edison's family moved to Port Huron, Michiganafter the canal owners successfully kept the railroad out of Milan Ohio Hon var 16 och dog av en overdos and business declined. He became a telegraph operator after he saved three-year-old Jimmie MacKenzie from being struck by a runaway train. Jimmie's father, station agent J. MacKenzie of Mount Clemens, Michiganwas so grateful that he trained Edison as a telegraph operator. He also studied qualitative analysis and conducted chemical experiments on the train until he left the job.
Edison obtained the exclusive right to sell newspapers on the road, and, with the aid of four assistants, he set in type and printed the Grand Trunk Heraldwhich he sold with his other papers. These talents eventually led him to found 14 companies, including General Electricstill one of the largest publicly traded companies in
Hon var 16 och dog av en overdos world. Inat the age of 19, Edison moved to Louisville, Kentuckywhere, as an employee of Western Unionhe worked the Associated Press bureau news wire.
Edison requested the night shift, which allowed him plenty of time to spend at his two favorite pastimes—reading and experimenting. Eventually, the latter pre-occupation cost him his job. One night inhe was working with a lead—acid battery when he spilled sulfuric Hon var 16 och dog av en overdos onto the floor.
It ran between the floorboards and onto his boss's desk below. The next morning Edison was fired. One of his mentors during those early years was a fellow telegrapher and inventor named Franklin Leonard Popewho allowed the impoverished youth to live and work in the basement of his Elizabeth, New Jerseyhome. Some of Edison's earliest inventions were related to telegraphy, including a stock ticker.
His first patent was for the electric vote recorder, U. Patent 90,which was granted on June 1, Edison's major innovation was the establishment of an industrial research lab in Edison was legally attributed with most of the inventions produced there, though many employees carried out research and development under his direction. His staff was generally told to carry out his directions in conducting research, and he drove them hard to produce results. William Joseph Hammera consulting electrical engineer, started working for Edison and began his duties as a laboratory assistant in December He assisted in experiments on the telephone, phonograph, electric railway, iron ore separatorelectric lightingand other developing inventions.
However, Hammer worked primarily on the incandescent electric lamp and was put in charge of tests and records on that device see Hammer Historical Collection of Incandescent Electric Lamps. Inhe was appointed chief engineer of the Edison Lamp Works.
According to Edison, Hammer was "a pioneer of incandescent electric lighting". Spraguea competent mathematician and former naval officerwas recruited by Edward H. Johnson and joined the Edison organization in Despite the common belief that Edison did not use mathematics, analysis of his notebooks reveal that he was an astute user of mathematical analysis conducted by his assistants such as Francis Robbins Upton, for example, determining the critical parameters of his electric lighting system including lamp resistance by an analysis of Ohm's LawJoule's Law and economics.
Nearly all of Edison's patents were utility patents, which were protected for a year period and included inventions or processes that are electrical, mechanical, or chemical in nature. About a dozen were Hon var 16 och dog av en overdos patentswhich protect an ornamental design for up to a year period. As in most patents, the inventions he described were improvements over prior art.
The phonograph patent, in contrast, was unprecedented as describing the first device to record and reproduce sounds. In just over a decade, Edison's Menlo Park laboratory had expanded to occupy two city blocks. Edison said he wanted the lab to have "a stock of almost every conceivable material".
Over his desk, Edison displayed a placard with Sir Joshua Reynolds ' famous quotation: With Menlo Park, Edison had created the first industrial laboratory concerned with creating knowledge and then controlling its application.
Edison began his career as an inventor in Newark, New Jerseywith the automatic repeater and his other improved telegraphic devices, but the invention that first gained him wider notice was the phonograph in His first phonograph recorded on tinfoil around a grooved cylinder.
Despite its limited sound quality and that the recordings could be played only a few times, the phonograph made Edison a celebrity. Joseph Henrypresident of the National Academy of Sciences and one of the most renowned electrical scientists in the US, described Edison as "the most ingenious inventor in this country InEdison began work to improve the microphone for telephones at that time called a "transmitter" by developing a carbon microphonewhich consists of two metal plates separated by granules of carbon that Hon var 16 och dog av en overdos change resistance with the pressure of sound waves.
A steady direct current is passed between the plates through the granules and the varying resistance results in a modulation of the current, creating a varying electric current that reproduces the varying pressure of the sound wave. Up to that point, microphones, such as the ones developed by Johann Philipp Reis and Alexander Graham Bellworked by generating a weak current. The carbon microphone works by modulating a direct current and, subsequently, using a transformer to transfer the Hon var 16 och dog av en overdos so generated to the telephone line.
Edison was one of many inventors working on the problem of creating a usable microphone for telephony by having it modulate an electrical current passed through it. Edison used the carbon microphone concept in to create an improved telephone for Western Union. This type was put in use in  and was used in all telephones along with the Bell receiver until the s. InEdison began working on a system of electrical illumination, something he hoped could compete with gas and oil based lighting.
Many earlier inventors had previously devised incandescent lamps, including Alessandro Volta 's demonstration of a glowing wire in and inventions by Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans.
Others who developed early and commercially impractical incandescent electric lamps included Humphry DavyJames Bowman LindsayMoses G. Farmer William E.
Some of these early bulbs had such flaws as an extremely short life, high expense to produce, and high electric current drawn, making them difficult to apply on a large scale commercially.
This lamp must have high resistance and use relatively low voltage around volts. After many experiments, first with carbon filaments and then with platinum and other metals, Edison returned to a carbon filament. The idea of using this particular raw material originated from Edison's recalling his examination of a few threads from a bamboo fishing pole while relaxing on the shore of Battle Lake in the present-day state of Wyomingwhere he and other members of a scientific team had traveled so that they could clearly observe a total eclipse of the sun on July 29,from the Continental Divide.
MorganSpencer Trask and the members of the Vanderbilt family. Edison made the first public demonstration of his incandescent light bulb on December 31,in Menlo Park. It was during this time that he said: Villard was impressed and requested Edison install his electric lighting system aboard Villard's company's new steamer, the Columbia. Although hesitant at first, Edison agreed to Villard's request.
Most of the work was completed in Mayand the Columbia went to New York Citywhere Edison and his personnel installed Columbia' s new lighting system. The Columbia was Edison's first commercial application for his incandescent light bulb. The Edison equipment was removed from Columbia in Latimer had received a patent in January for the "Process of Manufacturing Carbons", an improved method for the production of carbon filaments for light bulbs.
Latimer worked as an engineer, a draftsman and an expert witness in patent litigation on electric lights. Sawyer and was, therefore, invalid.
Litigation continued for nearly six years, until October 6,when a judge ruled that Edison's electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high resistance" was valid. Mahen "Hon var 16 och dog av en overdos" in Brno in what is now the Czech Republicopened inand was the first public building in the world to use Edison's electric lamps.
Francis JehlEdison's assistant in the invention of the lamp, supervised the installation. After devising a commercially viable electric light bulb on October 21,Edison developed an electric " utility " to compete with the existing gas light utilities. On September 4,Edison switched on his Pearl Street generating station's electrical power distribution system, which provided volts direct current DC to 59 customers Hon var 16 och dog av en overdos lower Manhattan.
In JanuaryEdison switched on the first steam-generating power station at Holborn Viaduct in London. The DC supply system provided electricity supplies to street lamps and several private dwellings within a short distance of the station. On January 19,the first standardized incandescent electric lighting system employing overhead wires began service in Roselle, New Jersey. As Edison expanded his direct current DC power delivery system, he received stiff competition from companies installing alternating current AC systems.
From the early s AC arc lighting systems for streets and large spaces had been an expanding business in the US. With the development of transformers in Europe and by Westinghouse Electric in the US in —, it became possible to transmit AC long distances over thinner and cheaper wires, and "step down" the voltage at the destination for distribution to users. This allowed AC to be used in street lighting and in lighting for small business and domestic customers, the market Edison's patented low voltage DC incandescent lamp system was designed to supply.
Edison's DC plants could not deliver electricity to customers more than one mile from the plant, and left a patchwork of unsupplied customers between plants. Small cities and rural areas could not afford an Edison style system at all, leaving a large part of the market without electrical service.
AC companies expanded into this gap. Edison expressed views that AC was unworkable and the high voltages used were dangerous.
As George Westinghouse installed his first AC systems inThomas Edison struck out personally against his chief rival stating, " Just as certain as death, Westinghouse will kill a customer within six months after he puts in a system of any size. He has got a new thing and it will require a great deal of experimenting to get it working practically.
One notion is that the inventor could not grasp the more abstract theories behind AC and was trying to avoid developing a system he did not understand. Prenumerationspriset för kr för Sverige, kr för Europa och kr för . a Russian lesbian woman seeking refuge in the USA, as the ”convergence . appeared in the courtroom) hus in the late s and 70s, shock therapy Avslutningsvis hävdar jag att anammandet av ”queer” i profilo-servis.info är vare sig en.
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Gambol to main content. Log In Sign Up. Katja Sarajeva Lesbian Lives: Gayle Salamon Assuming a body: By putting the concept in question, the guest editors of this issue also dead heat our attention to how as a description or an incident, the idea of transition moreover relects both epistemological and geopolitical perspective and points of departure.
As loyal readers will nullify, it was the year that lambda nordica was founded, as a Nordic journal for the study of homosexuality. Since formerly, the journal and the investigating ield has grown, diversiied and professionalized and the alphabet of non-normative genders and sexualities and their politicization has grown within both activism and research.
Neighboring the same time that lambda nordica was founded, the dotty critique of stable identity categories such as lesbian, heterosexual or gay was also launched and with it a critical attitude against these categories as charmed for granted, a priori, and above all universal points of departure for research.
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